Gobekli Tepe (GT) is the oldest known henge (circular megolithic structure) site in the world, it predates Stonehenge by 6000 years and is located in Turkey situated between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. It is dated to about 12 ka. Goebekli Tepe is a system of circular and square walled structures or buildings (the wall of one becomes the wall of another). Two large tall T shaped pillars stand at the center of the circular buildings. These buildings are thought by some to be the earliest example of religious belief systems expressed in a structural context supporting the concept temples and/or religion preceded government as a method for societal control.
The round structures are the oldest while the square structures are dated to around 10000 before present (BP). The structures were likely covered with a roof (debated), if that is the case then the central pillar alignment was probably random as there would be no direct view of the sky at night. When you look at the central pillar's alignment they certainly look completely random. The outer ring of smaller pillars was definitely random as they were moved more than once when the walls were damaged then rebuilt into smaller circular patterns.
Since GT predates any known form of text by 6000 years, archaeologist are careful about making conclusive characterizations about the structures and their exact use. This seems to have opened the door for other interpretations ranging from a lost race of advanced humans to little green men aka aliens. Some non-archaeologist scientists have also written papers supporting astrological or constellation alignment of the pillars i.e. a relief of a carved bull represents the constellation Taurus.
Most of the current onsite archaeologist, however, try to keep their interpretations grounded to direct observational evidence i.e. auroch's (bulls) were hunted locally as were tigers, lions, boars, and birds all of which are depicted in relief form on the pillars, the hunting and killing of which were likely memorialized on these pillars. The reliefs of a particular animal dominate within each structure suggesting an individual clan may have been associated with that animal.
Markers of ‘Psychocultural’ Change The site is interpreted as a social hub for meetings and feasts of different hunter groups of the region, and its iconographic repertoire gives ample examples of this new symbolic art. The imagery of this site in particular focuses on strong and dangerous animals, apparently emphasizing ideas of death and threat.
The carved reliefs were all created long before metal or even pottery was formed, hence flint stone tools are found in copious quantities at the site.
Wiki The Sumerian archaic (pre-cuneiform) writing and Egyptian hieroglyphs are generally considered the earliest true writing systems, both emerging out of their ancestral proto-literate symbol systems from 3400–3100 BC (5400-5100 ka), with earliest coherent texts from about 2600 BC.
There are several Sumerian/Akadian/Babylonian/Hebrew creation myths which contain some common themes running through them. These common features include names of gods, places, events and stories about creation, the garden of Eden, Adam and Eve, Enoch, Noah and a flood sent by the gods to punish mankind for his wrongdoings. The earliest text of creation myths come from the Sumer culture and weave their way into later cultures like the Hurrians, Akadians, Babylonians and Assyrians.
The earliest myths (5400 ka,) are found in books or tablets of clay fragmented with partial text. When combined with multiple sources a somewhat consistent thread can be extracted. Listed in order of antiquity, some of these myths are called
The Epic of Atrahasis,
The Epic of Gilgamesh,
The Book of Enoch,
The Hebrew Bible,
Minor parts are also found in the Dead Sea Scrolls
The most consistent common theme running through these books is the account of the flood story and there are a number of identical statements made in each. An import statement oft repeated is that the lower gods had sex with the most beautiful daughters of men to which children were born and these children grew to be giants. The gods also had blond hair. Indigenous people of the Mesopotamian area were naturally dark skinned, with brown hair and brown eyes.
For species to successfully interbreed, they must be genetically compatible. In other words, these gods had to be human to successfully breed with human women but by the standard of the day were considered so superior as to be thought to be a god. As myth migrated orally through time, mystical and magical abilities were naturally attributed to these superior humans.
In these stories, the gods have a pecking order. The main or supreme god(s) were the Anunaki which were ruled by An or Anu and his right hand man Enlil. The lower gods or angels were also known as Watchers. The Watchers had blond hair, could fly, shape shift and had great knowledge like the Anunaki.